Sunday 17 January 2010

Middle East

The island project is coming along very nicely, I'm about three quarters of the way through it! For now though, some photos of Middle Eastern tetrapods.

The Middle East is a convergence of two (some say three) continents and two biogeographic realms. With Turkey and Cyprus in the west being somewhat European, through the Near Eastern countries of Syria, Lebanon, Jordan and Israel, into what is classically thought of as the Middle East itself, the Arabian Peninsula, which is undeniably Asian. If you consider Egypt as Middle Eastern, this region also covers Africa, but faunistically it is partially Afrotropical (the realm covered by sub-saharan Africa and southern Arabia). Most of the Middle East, however, is in the Palaearctic realm, which also covers Europe, north Africa up to the Sahara Desert and most of Asia north of India and southern China.

Habitat-wise, much of the Middle East is dry and arid, with deserts making up large parts of the Arabian Peninsula and the Near East. There are fresh water bodies which have endemic life (including the first animal on our list, the Levantine frog), as well as regions of high altitude which, although arid, can be bitterly cold.

Levantine frog
Pelophylax bedriagae (Camerano, 1882)
Ranidae; Anura; Amphibia; Chordata
Geçitköy Reservoir, North Cyprus
April 2009

The genus Pelophylax includes many familiar frogs including the marsh (P. ridibundus), edible (P. kl. esculentus) and pool (P. lessonae) frogs of Europe. It was recently split from the frog genus Rana which includes, in its current sense, more widely distributed species from North America and Eurasia. The Levantine frog was once considered a subspecies of the marsh frog, but has been considered specifically distinct for a number of years.

Their range includes much of Turkey and the Near East, hence the name (the Levant is a traditional term for the eastern Mediterranean, covering parts of Syria, Lebanon, Jordan, Israel and small parts of Egypt, Iraq and Saudi Arabia). They are the only large frog in Cyprus, and I managed to get excellent views of them despite scaring quite a few off before getting the above shot.

Palestine viper
Vipera palestinae Werner, 1938
Viperidae; Squamata; Sauropsida; Chordata
London Zoo
August 2004

This is a beautiful species of venomous snake from the viper family, also including adders. There are many species in the Middle East, all of which are venomous and potentially fatal to humans. The Palestine viper often bites people, being the most frequent-biting of Middle Eastern vipers. It is endemic to the Near East, from Syria south to Israel and Palestine.

This species of viper is boldly patterned, without a clear zig-zag which can be found in other species of the genus Vipera, like the long-nosed viper (V. ammodytes) which looks like the adder (V. berus) and European asp (V. aspis), the latter species being a notorious killer, this infamy (infamy, they've all got it in for me!) being attributed of course to the death of Cleopatra, the Egyptian Ptolemaic pharoah.

Asia Minor spiny mice
Acomys cilicicus Spitzenberger, 1978
Muridae; Rodentia; Mammalia; Chordata
Colchester Zoo
June 2009

Spiny mice belonging to the genus Acomys are widespread in Africa, southwest Asia and a few Mediterranean islands. There are twenty-odd species in the genus, and are known for the appearance of some of the guard hairs on their back, which are thickened and sharpened, resembling spines. This is probably an anti-predator adaptation. In the Middle East, there are three species: the widespread A. dimidiatus, the Cypriot endemic A. nesiotes and the Asia Minor spiny mouse.

The Cyprus spiny mouse was believed extinct until 2007 when a few individuals were found. The Asia Minor spiny mouse, which is restricted to parts of southern Turkey (the majority of the country of Turkey has traditionally been known as Asia Minor), used to be considered a Critically Endangered species by the IUCN. The most recent assessment, by the Small Nonvolant Mammal Red List Authority and Global Mammal Assessment Team, places A. cilicicus as Data Deficient. The "deficient data" is the questionable species status of the Asia Minor spiny mouse. It could be considered an isolated population of the more widespread Cairo spiny mouse (A. cahirinus) of North Africa - if so it would not need high protection by the IUCN.

Syrian brown bear
Ursus arctos syriacus Hemprich & Ehrenberg, 1828
Ursidae; Carnivora; Mammalia; Chordata
Colchester Zoo
some time in the mid-90s

This is a photo of Rosie, an elderly Syrian brown bear held at Colchester Zoo (in what is now the buffy-chested capuchin enclosure) for several decades until she died a decade or so ago (the details are hazy; I can't find any mention of her on t'internet but recall reading of her death some time ago). This is the subspecies of brown bear found in the Middle East, being found in parts of Russia, the Caucasus, Turkey, Lebanon, Iran and of course Syria. Syrian bears are pale in colour and quite small for brown bears, being about 2-3 times smaller than Kodiak bears (U. a. middendorffii), the largest of the brown bear subspecies.

Persian leopard
Panthera pardus saxicolor Pocock, 1927
Felidae; Carnivora; Mammalia; Chordata
Chessington World of Adventures
September 2009

Leopards are the most widespread of the big cats still around today, being found in most of Africa and a lot of Asia. There are numerous races found in a wide variety of habitats. The Amur leopard (P. p. orientalis) of Far Eastern Russia is found in taiga forest with severely cold winters, and the Arabian leopard (P. p. nimr) is a desert dweller. There are those from the African savannah (P. p. pardus) and dense rainforests too. In the Middle East, there are a disputed number of subspecies, but there are at least two: the Arabian and the Persian.

Persian leopards are from the more temperate regions of the area, having a thick coat of fur almost like that of a snow leopard (Uncia uncia). They range from Turkey in the west (where they are also known as Anatolian leopards under the subspecies P. p. tulliana) through the Caucasus (sometimes split as P. p. ciscaucasica) and into the Near East into Iran and beyond. Leopards from the Sinai Peninsula of eastern Egypt have been placed either in this race or in P. p. jarvisi.

Sand cat
Felis margarita Loche, 1858
Felidae; Carnivora; Mammalia; Chordata
Bristol Zoo
September 2009

The sand cat is a small species of desert-dwelling felid from the Sahara Desert, the Arabian Peninsula and parts of Central Asia. It is very well-adapted to life in arid areas, with such features as a broad, flat head to help keep a low profile on sand dunes when stalking prey, a pallid coat camouflaging well with sand and gravel, large ears and feet covered with thick fur to protect themselves from hot sand. The subspecies found in the Middle East is F. m. harrisoni, which is indeed the race of the animal pictured above.

Arabian oryx
Oryx leucoryx Pallas, 1766
Bovidae; Cetartiodactyla; Mammalia; Chordata
London Zoo
August 2004

Oryxes are large antelopes from Africa and the Middle East of the genus Oryx. Of those, the Arabian is the smallest and the only one still living in Asia. The body is almost pure white with dark markings. It became extinct in the wild during the latter part of the last century, being saved from complete extinction by conservation efforts of zoos and wildlife parks, most notably those of London Zoo, and Phoenix Zoo in Arizona.

Apart from their size and coloration, the most distinctive feature of the Arabian oryx is its very long, straight horns. From the side, at a distance, squinting heavily, in a desert mirage, it is almost quite possible to mistake this animal for a horse, but a horse with a single horn on its forehead. Sound familiar? Yes, the Arabian oryx might be the origin of the myth of the unicorn (doesn't have a scientific name, but I'm tempted to call it Equus unicornis).

I'm off to Paris next week to visit the menagerie of animals at Jardin des Plantes and the public collections at Le Grande Gallerie de l'Évolution and Galerie de paléontologie et d’anatomie comparée, all part of Muséum national d'Histoire naturelle.

Thursday 7 January 2010

Central Asia

As a precursor to my ongoing island series, I'm starting a continental photo series, starting with the mountains, plateaux, steppes, desert and taiga of Central Asia, a vast area covering parts of Russia, Tibet, Mongolia, Kazakhstan and other former Soviet states. The frozen wastes of Siberia give way to dense coniferous forest, known as taiga, which become treeless plains, called the steppe, some of which is flat, and other parts are mountainous. The Tibetan plateau is a high-altitude plain, leading southwards to the Himalayas, the highest mountain chain on Earth. Other mountain chains include the Altai and Tien Shan mountains. In the interior of the continent is the Gobi Desert where extremes of temperature require any life to adapt to the heat of the day and the cold winter nights. Here follows some of my favourite photos of Central Asian birds and mammals taken at various zoos and reserves.

Bar-headed goose
Anser indicus (Latham, 1790)
Anatidae; Anseriformes; Aves; Chordata
Slimbridge Wetland Centre
September 2009

The bar-headed goose is a migratory bird spending the summer months in Central Asia. In winter, the geese make an epic journey over the Himalayas to reach India, Bangladesh and Myanmar. The air is extremely thin at such altitudes (imagine Mount Everest, well, in order not to crash into it, the geese need to fly even higher than that, in fact at over 10,000 m, or 33,000' !); as a result they have extremely efficient lungs and air sacs with which to extract what little oxygen there is in the air to power their flight. Not only that, but their blood is more efficient at holding oxygen in the form of the haemoglobin in their red blood cells. The bar-headed goose's journey doesn't even take that long: they can get to their destination in a single day, due to their ability to ride the jet stream, creating an efficient and time-saving journey.

Bar-headed geese are common in captivity, and as such have often escaped. I once saw a bar-headed goose within a gaggle of Canada geese (Branta canadensis) in Enfield Town, where I live, but didn't have a camera. I did send the record off to Birdtrack though.

Male Baikal teal
Anas formosa Georgi, 1775
Anatidae; Anseriformes; Aves; Chordata
London Wetland Centre
October 2008

Baikal teals are another migratory waterbird, spending the summer months in the eastern parts of Central Asia into the Far East. The lake from which the bird gets its name is the deepest and oldest lake in the world. It also has the second highest volume of any lake (after the Caspian Sea, which is technically a lake, although a saltwater one), and is renowned for its endemic seal (Pusa sibirica) and sturgeon (Acipense baeri baicalensis).

The Baikal teal's specific name, formosa, has two meanings: one may recognise formosa as another name for Taiwan, where the teal sometimes winters, but the name really derives from a Latin word meaning 'beautiful', which describes both the Far Eastern island and the drake's plumage aptly.

Przewalski's wild horse
Equus ferus przewalskii (Poliakov, 1881)
Equidae; Perissodactyla; Mammalia; Chordata
Whipsnade Wild Animal Park
April 2009

The Przewalski's wild horse is the last remaining form of the tarpan, the name for the wild ancestor of today's domestic horses and ponies. All breeds, from tiny Falabella and Shetland ponies, to great Shire horses and mustangs, came from the tarpan, which formerly ranged across Eurasia from Britain into Central Asia. It was almost hunted completely to extinction, as only a few individuals from the remotest parts of Mongolia survived. These were the ancestors of the Przewalski's horses still found today in zoos and wildlife parks worldwide. A few small herds have been reintroduced to Mongolia from captive-bred individuals, and is now no longer considered 'Extinct in the Wild' by the IUCN.

Bos grunniens Linnaeus, 1766
Bovidae; Cetartiodactyla; Mammalia; Chordata
Whipsnade Wild Animal Park
April 2009

The yak is a species of cattle endemic to Central Asia, known for its hardy nature and thick shaggy fur. It is domesticated by Tibetan and Mongolian people for its wool, meat and milk, amongst other things. I once read when I was a child that yak milk is pink... this is apparently not true but I would like to know if anyone else knows otherwise. The word 'yak' refers only to bulls; the cows are known by the term 'nak'. So technically, there's no such thing as yak milk, only nak milk.

Like the bar-headed goose, yaks are well adapted for high altitudes, having larger lungs and more efficient oxygen-carrying molecules in the blood and muscles. They are so well adapted for alpine life that they suffer at lower altitudes; their thick hair is a hindrance. Domesticated yaks are used for all sorts of things. The meat is valued, as is the milk, which is used in cheeses and butter. The fur is woven into fabrics of surprising softness, and the hides are used as leather. They are of course relied upon as beasts of burden, and their dung is used as fuel. Yaks don't moo, unlike other members of the Bos genus, which also includes domestic cattle (B. taurus), instead they grunt; this is the origin of the specific name B. grunniens. The domesticated yak are sometimes given the specific distinction of being even quieter than their wild kin, having the name B. mutus.

Yak interbreed well with other species of cattle, most notably the dzo, which is a sterile male offspring of a yak (either sex) and domestic cattle. Females are fertile, and are known as zhom or dzomo. An intergeneric experimental cross between yak and American bison (Bison bison) has apparently been successful, being given the silly name of 'yakalo'.

Snow leopard
Uncia uncia (Schreber, 1775)
Felidae; Carnivora; Mammalia; Chordata
Paradise Wildlife Park
May 2008

The snow leopard, or ounce, is the big cat best adapted for high altitude life. It is found across the Altai, Tien Shan and Himalayan mountain ranges of Central Asia, not being found below 3000 metres (10,000') in elevation. They are, of course, an endangered species, being targeted for its beautiful fur. Snow leopards were previously placed in the genus Panthera, which contains the other big cats, the tiger (P. tigris), leopard (P. pardus), jaguar (P. onca) and lion (P. leo), as well as several extinct species. It differs from the Panthera big cats mainly in its inability to roar. They can make an impressive array of other sounds though.

Snow leopards are highly predatory and prey upon a wide variety of large to medium-sized mammals, including ibexes (Capra sibirica), markhors (C. falconeri), urials (Ovis vignei), bharals (Pseudois nayaur), yaks asses (Equus spp.), marmots (Marmota spp.), hares (Lepus spp.) and pikas (Ochotona spp.), as well as birds and the odd dog or young bear. Despite some conflicts with livestock, most Central Asian peoples revere the snow leopard, and it appears in several countries' coats of arms.

Siberian lynx
Lynx lynx wrangeli (Ognev, 1928)
Felidae; Carnivora; Mammalia; Chordata
Paradise Wildlife Park
September 2009

The Eurasian lynx is Europe's largest cat and formerly ranged across Eurasia. It is still widespread in Asia but has been exterminated from many parts of Europe where it has come into conflict with humans. The subspecies from parts of Siberia is known as the Siberian lynx, and is a beautiful cat with tipped ears and a short black-tipped tail. Lynxes will prey on ungulates such as deer, but the majority of the prey base is made of lagomorphs, mostly hares. In many populations of lynx around the world, most notably Canada lynx (L. canadensis), the population of lynx is closely linked to the population of its prey, so as numbers of hares increase, the numbers of lynx also increase to take advantage of the abundance of prey, until hares start to decrease, when lynxes also follow. This cycle takes about decade to revolve and has been noticed by fur trappers since the 19th century.

Pallas' cat
Otocolobus manul Pallas, 1776
Felidae; Carnivora; Mammalia; Chordata
Paradise Wildlife Park
September 2009

One of my favourite of all felids is the Pallas' cat, or manul. It has a distinctive appearance: long, luxuriant grey fur and a broad flat head, low ears and a dappling of black spots on the forehead. The eyes are narrow and are surrounded by stripes and spots. It is slightly reminiscent of the Persian cat, a breed of domestic cat, and was once thought to be ancestral to it. This is now most likely untrue. Pallas' cats are a major predator of pikas and other lagomorphs, rodents and partridges.

In the wild they inhabit mid-altitude regions of Central Asia from southern Russia and Mongolia through Tibet into northern India and Nepal. They are rarely seen in the wild, not least due to its elusive nature, remote habitat and nocturnal or crepuscular habits. Thankfully, they can be observed well in zoos, and I always delight in visiting this individual at a local zoo. The challenge is always to find it, as it's often high up in the rafters of the enclosure, away from prying eyes.

Corsac fox
Vulpes corsac (Linnaeus, 1768)
Canidae; Carnivora; Mammalia; Chordata
Paradise Wildlife Park
September 2009

Foxes of the genus Vulpes are amongst the most familiar wild mammals: one species or another is found wild or feral in all continents except South America and Antarctica (South America has its own unique group of fox-like canids, the zorros, more on them at some point...). The red fox (V. vulpes) is undoubtedly the most familiar, being native to North America, Eurasia and parts of North Africa, and introduced to Australia. There are several other species, some adapted to cool climates, like the arctic fox (V. lagopus - also sometimes placed in its own genus, Alopex) and others to deserts, like the fennec (V. zerda). The Central Asian region has four species of fox, the red fox, Tibetan fox (V. ferrilata), Blanford's fox (V. cana) and the corsac fox pictured above.

The corsac fox ranges across Russia and other parts of Central Asia, being a social predator of pikas and other small vertebrates. Canids are not known for their tree-climbing abilities, but corsac foxes are among the best tree-climbers, often raiding birds' nests. It bears quite a resemblance to a small red fox, with paler fur, and looks very much like the swift fox (V. velox) of the prairies of North America.

Bactrian camel
Camelus ferus Przewalski, 1878
Camelidae; Cetartiodactyla; Mammalia; Chordata
Whipsnade Wild Animal Park
April 2009

Truly wild Bactrian camels are rare. They are a critically endangered species, with less than a thousand remaining in remote parts of China and Mongolia. In its feral and domesticated state, however, the Bactrian camel is a familiar sight. Bigger than the one-humped dromedary (C. dromedarius), the name of the Bactrian camel derives from Bactria, the name for a region now occupied by Afghanistan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan (lots of 'Stans there). Bactrian camels are adapted to a life in cold desert; they have many of the adaptations that camels have for coping in the heat, but with a thick winter pelt to retain heat when needed.

Next time, I'll move southwest towards the Middle East, where we can find venomous snakes, more desert cats and perhaps the origin of the myth of the unicorn...

Tuesday 5 January 2010


Here is a sample page from my current project. A nice variety of colourful and not-so-colourful mammals, birds and reptiles. What do they have in common? Well, they are all unique to, or almost so, a single island or archipelago.

The seven animals at the top of the page are known from particular islands, the clue for many is in their name, i.e. the giant rat called the Panay cloudrunner is endemic to the Philippine island of Panay (top centre on the island montage above, photos from Google Earth), while the snake-eyed skink, being found on many Pacific Ocean islands, represents the island of Rapa Nui, more commonly known as Easter Island (there are very few animals still living on this island, I will tell more of the story when I come to the island in more detail).

I've drawn about 100 of the animals for this project, and there are many more yet to do, but it's a fun project to do and I'm enjoying it immensely. Some species I have been dreading, as I don't think I'll do them enough justice, but I haven't been that unhappy with any of them yet. I don't know if I'll wait for the series to be complete before I post any more... but in case I do take over a month, I'll keep you entertained with photos from my portfolio.

Sunday 3 January 2010

British Wildlife: Z

Happy New Year to all Disillusioned Taxonomist readers! And welcome to the FINAL instalment of the British Wildlife series. If you're wondering what's next, stay tuned for a sneak preview in the coming week... In the meantime, here's Zanclodon, Zootoca and Zicrona, and an overview of all three alphabets I've covered in the last six months.

Zanclodon cambrensis (Newton, 1899)
Megalosauridae; Saurischia; Sauropsida; Chordata

For our final prehistoric British animal, I've gone with a tiger-striped reconstruction of a Zanclodon. The name may be unfamiliar to many dinosaur enthusiasts: it is a junior synonym of Megalosaurus, and the species Z. cambrensis, or M. cambrensis, is a nomen nudum, since no proper description was given along with the name.

Natural cast of anterior part of the mandible of Zanclodon cambrensis
Natural History Museum
March 2008

The name Zanclodon is a controversial one, and has been used for as many different animals as sabre-toothed cats (i.e., Smilodon), megalosaurids, plateosaurids and rauisuchians (crocodile-like early archosaurs). This animal doesn't really belong in my A-Z, but I felt it needed a tiger-striped theropod.

Viviparous, or common, lizard
Zootoca vivipara Von Jacquin, 1787
Lacertidae; Squamata; Sauropsida; Chordata

Formerly placed in Lacerta, Zootoca vivipara is the only member of its genus, and is one of only three species of lizard native to the British Isles (excluding any of the outlying smaller isles like Jersey where green lizards - Lacerta bilineata - are sometimes considered native). Despite it being common, I have never, ever seen one, despite years of looking. The species gets its specific, and one of its vernacular, names from its ability to give birth to live young. In reptiles, this is called vivipary, or more accurately, ovovivipary (lots of 'v's there!), in which a membraned young is born which immediately hatches. True vivipary is pretty much limited to mammals.

Another of Zootoca's claims to fame is that it is the most northerly species of reptile, which, along with the adder (Vipera berus), penetrates the Arctic Circle. As well as being found so far north, the viviparous lizard ranges across the whole of the Eurasian continent from Ireland in the west to Sakhalin, Russia, in the east. Obviously, vivipary is a good strategy.

(Blue shieldbug)
Zicrona caerulea (Linnaeus, 1758)
Pentatomidae; Hemiptera; Insecta; Arthropoda

The zicrona (I cheated here and used its scientific name as a common name, get used to it) is a dazzlingly turquoise insect which incidentally is a true bug. Most people, myself included at some times, will assume all insects are bugs, but the term has a very specific meaning. Only those members of the Hemiptera ('half-winged') can be properly termed bugs. Something all bugs share in common is sucking mouthparts: all bugs eat liquid food of some form or another: sap, blood, decomposed matter etc. Most other insects either have no mouthparts or those for biting and chewing (an exception being lepidopterans - butterflies and moths - whose adult stages use a modified pair of mandibles known as a proboscis to extract nectar from flowers by sucking)

Members of the family Pentatomidae have pentagonal bodies that look like shields. Most shieldbugs can fly but are reluctant to do so, and will prefer to produce an odour instead: this gives shieldbugs their alternate name of stinkbugs. Nice.

This brings us neatly to the end of the British alphabet series. I hope you've enjoyed it. What was your favourite illustration? Which article was the most enlightening or fun to read? Please tell me.

Here's a reminder:
A - the plesiosaur Attenborosaurus conybeari, the long-tailed tit Aegithalos caudatus and the avocet Recurvirostra avosetta.
B - the theropod Baryonyx walkeri, the barbastelle Barbastella barbastellus and the European beaver Castor fiber.
C - the sauropod Cetiosaurus oxoniensis, the smooth snake Coronella austriaca and the chaffinch Fringilla coelebs.
D - the stegosaur Dacentrurus armatus, the great spotted woodpecker Dendrocopos major and the red deer Cervus elaphus.
E - the theropod Eotyrannus lengi, the hedgehog Erinaceus europaeus and the white-tailed eagle Haliaeetus albicilla.
F - the trilobite Flexicalymene cambrensis, the wildcat Felis silvestris and the red fox Vulpes vulpes.
G - the crocodylomorph Goniopholis crassidens, the jay Garrulus glandarius and the red grouse Lagopus lagopus.
H - the ornithopod Hypsilophodon foxii, the grey seal Halichoerus grypus and the harvest mouse Micromys minutus.
I - the ornithopod Iguanodon anglicus, the blue-tailed damselfly Ischnura elegans and the ingrailed clay Diarsia mendica.
J - the jawless fish Jamoytius kerwoodi, the wryneck Jynx torquilla and the jackdaw Corvus monedula.
K - the symmetrodont mammal Kuehneotherium praecursoris, the sharpleaf cancerwort Kickxia elatine and the kingfisher Alcedo atthis.
L - the pliosaur Liopleurodon ferox, the mountain hare Lepus timidus and the lapwing Vanellus vanellus.
M - the woolly mammoth Mammuthus primigenius, the hazel dormouse Muscardinus avellanarius and the pine marten Martes martes.
N - the theropod Neovenator salerii, the water shrew Neomys fodiens and the palmate newt Lissotriton helveticus.
O - the pterosaur Ornithocheirus simus, the great bustard Otis tarda and the otter Lutra lutra.
P - the ankylosaur Polacanthus foxii, the great crested grebe Podiceps cristatus and the puffin Fratercula arctica.
Q - the trilobite Quinquecosta williamsi, the purple hairstreak Quercusia quercus and the quail Coturnix coturnix.
R - the pterosaur Rhamphorhynchus jessoni, the water rail Rallus aquaticus and the robin Erithacus rubecula.
S - the thyreophoran Scelidosaurus harrisonii, the red squirrel Sciurus vulgaris and the stoat Mustela erminea.
T - the sauropodomorph Thecodontosaurus antiquus, the mole Talpa europaea and the common toad Bufo bufo.
U - the cave bear Ursus spelaeus, the guillemot Uria aalge and the red underwing Catocala nupta.
V - the ornithopod Valdosaurus canaliculatus, the adder Vipera berus and the water vole Arvicola amphibius.
W - the early amniote Westlothiana lizziae, the barred hooktip Watsonalla cultripes and the Dartford warbler Sylvia undata.
X - the sauropod Xenoposeidon proneneukos, the hoverfly Xanthogramma pedissequum and the carpenter bee Xylocopa violacea.
Y - the pachycephalosaur/theropod Yaverlandia bitholus, the spindle ermine moth Yponomeuta cagnagella and the yellowhammer Emberiza citrinella.
Z - the theropod Zanclodon cambrensis, the viviparous lizard Zootoca vivipara and the blue shieldbug Zicrona caerulea.